The preimplantation diagnostic method (PGD) is a special test of chromosomes extracted from embryonic cells before they are transferred to the uterus.
One of the main causes of human genetic congenital diseases are chromosomal changes. Defects in chromosomes or their deterioration can be inherited from parents or reappear as a result of genetic changes in reproductive cells or in the early stages of embryonic development.
According to statistics and related research data, birth defects on chromosomes can be observed in 20-50% of all conceptions, causing 50-60% of miscarriages in the first trimester of pregnancy.
Thanks to the rapid development of our knowledge in genetics and molecular biology, today chromosome research is one of the indispensable components of modern medicine. More and more reproductive medicine clinics perform the collection and subsequent genetic analysis of embryonic cells on the 5-6 day of culture.
One of the new methods in preimplantation diagnosis is the use of comparative genomic hybridization on DNA chips (array-CGH). The working principle of this method consists of comparing the DNA of two sets of chromosomes, the set of chromosomes of the patient to be analysed and a set of chromosomes without deviations. This technique has radically changed the possibilities of discovering the causes of some genetic diseases. Thanks to DNA chips, during an analysis we can specify the changes in the whole set of chromosomes and thus discover anomalies difficult to discover so far.
“Before starting to work with the array-CGH method, we carried out an extensive study with the cooperation of the Institute of Molecular Genetics and the Department of Genetic Medicine at the University Hospital in Brno”, explains Vit Gubinka, the director of the laboratory of the Reproductive Medicine and Gynaecology clinic Reprofit International. “Comparative genomic hybridization gives hope to infertile couples and helps in their treatment.